Table 1.

Remote sensing instruments and satellite platforms (past and current) for global soil moisture observation.

InstrumentSatelliteFrequencyBandSpatial resolutionTemporal resolutionSensor type
GHzd
AMSR-2GCOM-W16.9–89S, X25–50 km2passive
AMSR-EAqua6.9–89C, X25–50 km2passive
AquariusAquarius1.26L (active)76–156 km7active/passive
1.41L (passive)
ASARENVISAT5.33C30–1000 m5active
ASCATMetOp5.25C25–50 km2active
MIRASSMOS1.4L35–60 km3passive
NISARNISARL and S0.1–50 km12–60active
PALSARALOS1.27L10–100 m46active
RADARSAT-1 & -25.40C10 m24active
Tandem-LTandem-L1.2L3–20 m8active
Sentinel-1A & -1BC5–20 m6–12active
SMAPSMAP1.41L (passive)40 km (passive)2–3active/passive
1.26L (active)3 km (active)2–3
SSM/ISSM/I19.35K13–69 km0.5passive
WindSATCoriolis 6.8–37C,X, and K8–71 km8passive