Table 1.


A Brief History of Soil Modeling 2
The State-of-the-Art of Modeling Soil Processes 3
The Role of Soil Modeling in Quantifying Ecosystem Services 3
Modeling Soil Supporting and Degrading Processes 5
Supporting Processes 5
 Soil Formation 5
 Water Cycling 5
 Nutrient Cycling 7
 Biological Activity 9
Soil Degrading Processes 10
 Salinization and Alkalinization 10
 Erosion 11
 Compaction 12
Soil Modeling and Ecosystem Services 13
Regulating Services 13
 Climate Regulation 13
 Buffering and Filtering 14
 Recycling of Anthropogenic Waste 15
Provisioning Services 16
 Biomass Production for Food, Fiber, and Energy 16
 Soil Physical Support 17
 Soil and Biologial Habitat 18
Challenges in Dealing with Soil Heterogeneity and Uncertainty 19
Heterogeneity: Aggregate to Landscape, Microbe to Forest, Grains to Ecology 19
 Model Concepts 20
 Exploring Heterogeneity 20
Formalisms for Considering Uncertainties Related To Model Choice 21
Does Local-Scale Model Complexity Matter for Predictions at Larger Scales? 22
Numerical Approaches and Model Data Integration 23
Numerical Approaches 23
Novel Optimization Methods and Their Application to Soil Modeling 24
Data Assimilation 25
Bayesian Approach for Model–Data Integration 26
Modern Sources of Spatial and Temporal Data for Soil Modeling 28
Informing Soil Models Using Remote Sensing 28
 Model Forcings 28
 Model Parameters 28
State Variables 29
Fluxes 29
Vegetation Canopy Properties Providing Information About Soil Status 29
Proximal Soil Sensing, Geographical Databases of Soil Properties for Soil Process Modeling 29
 Proximal Soil Sensing 29
 Soil Databases 31
Informing Soil Models Using Pedotransfer Functions 31
Parameterizing Models with Nondestructive and High Resolution Water Stable Isotope Data 33
Toward a Soil Modeling Platform 34
Virtual Soil Platform 34
Model Coupling Approaches 35
Benchmarks and Soil Model Intercomparisons 35
Linking Soil Modeling Platforms with Climate, Ecology, and Hydrology 36
Linking Soil Modeling Platforms with Crop and Biomass Production 37
Summary and Outlook 39