Table 5.

Overarching challenges to modeling soil processes.

Overarching challenges
Challenge 1To effectively exchange soil processes modeling and knowledge across different soil disciplines, and with Earth, ecology, and plant sciences.
Challenge 2To build platforms for integrating soil processes from pore and local scales into field and ultimately global-scale land surface models, crop models, climate models, and terrestrial models of biogeochemical processes.
Challenge 3To improve quantification and mechanistic representation of soil biological processes at scales ranging from microbial cells at pores or on root surfaces to the emergence of vegetation patterns over extensive landscapes.
Challenge 4To develop a framework that allows to differentiate soils based on their functioning properties and include land use and/or tracking changes of supporting–degrading processes toward building spatial maps that quantifying ecosystem services and may contribute to improve the valuation of ecosystem services.