Table 4.

Key challenges to soil modeling and ecosystem services.

Key challenges
Challenge 1To include soil structural dynamics in the prediction of the soil’s buffering and filtering capacity.
Challenge 2To link soil habitat and biodiversity modeling to soil function models.
Challenge 3To model soil formation processes over long time scales.
Challenge 4To upscale rhizosphere processes and soil–root interactions to the field scale.
Challenge 5To integrate new understanding of structure dynamics, chemical and biological processes into operational biosphere models, such as those predicting GHG emissions.